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六级翻译技巧

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Icey@ 时间:2011-04-10 12:06  2527次点击 | 0 关注

六级翻译技巧

一、汉译英应试原则和基本程序
(一)汉译英应试原则
手法灵活(如遇难译之处,换用其它相近说法表达)
语法正确(避免时态、语态、单复数等语法错误)
内容忠实(必须把原文的内容准确而完整地表达出来,不得有任何歪曲、遗漏或增删)
语言闪光(译文符合英语表达习惯,且用词准确、多样)
(二)汉译英基本程序
1
.理解 通读并透彻理解原文含义
2
.翻译 确定译文句子的时态、句型、结构和用词
3
.审校 首先检查译文是否正确地转述了原文内容,是否有错译和漏译;其次,检查是否有语言上的明显错误,如时态、语态、单复数、拼写、大小写、标点符号等。发现错误,及时改正。
二、汉译英专项练习
一、倍数增减的表示法
1) Force N1
is 2.5 times greater than force N2  (比力N22.5).
2) This substance
reacts three times as fast as the other one (反应速度是另外那种物质的三倍).
3) The earth
is 49 times the size of the moon   (是月球大小的49).
4) The landlord
want to raise the rent by a third  (想将租金提高三分之一).
5) They
plan to double their vestment(计划将投资增加一倍).
二、时态
1) Be quick,
or the wedding will have finished by the time we get to the church  (否则等我们到达教堂时婚礼就已经结束了).
2) When she got home,
the children had fallen asleep (孩子们已经睡着了).
3) When I prepare for the college entrance examination,
my sister will be taking he vacation at the seaside(我姐姐将在海边度假).
4) I
have been revising my resume all the morning (一上午都在修改我的简历).
5) Do you often go on holiday?
No, it has been five years since I went on holiday(不,我已经有五年没有度假了).
6) He joined the army in October, 2001.
He has been in the army for 5 years (他参军已五年了).
三、被动语态
1) The blackboard and chalk
is being replaced by the computer and projector(正在被电脑和投影机所取代).
2) The book
will have been published by the end of this year(到今年年底就将已出版).
3) Computer models
can be used to demonstrate the way that the cells work (可以用来演示细胞工作的方式).
4) When the bill of fare was brought,
I was startled, for the price ware a great deal higher than I had anticipated (我惊呆了,价格大大超出了我的预料).
5)
Effective measures must be taken immediately(必须立即采取有效措施)to eliminate sandy storms.
四、情态动词
1) The phone is ringing,
but there is no answer. She cant be at home (但是没人接听。她一定不在家).
2) I can’t find my sunglasses.
I may have left them in the coffer shop yesterday (我可能昨天落在咖啡店里了).
3) You screamed in your sleep last night.
You must have dreamed of something terrible  (你一定梦见什么可怕的东西了).
4) It’s a pity.
You should have invited her to your graduation ceremony (你本应该邀请她来参加你的毕业典礼的).
5)
I need not have put on my best suit to do to the party (其实我没必要穿上我最好的套装去参加那次聚会的); most of the guests were wearing jeans and sweaters.
五、虚拟语气
1) I wish
I had had your opportunities when I was young(我年轻的时候有你们这样的机会).
2) If only
he had known this disease is curable (他知道这病是可以治好的)! Then he would not have killed himself.
3) —— Would you like him to paint your door with yellow stars?
—— I’d rather he _______________(
漆成蓝色的,而且不带任何装饰).
4) It’s high time that _______________(
采取措施解决交通堵塞的问题).
5) Hugh usually talks _______________(
仿佛在大会上发表演说似的).
6) We insist that _______________(
让杰克立刻进医院).
7) It was advised that _______________(
在居民区设立更多的流动商店).
8) His proposal was that _______________(
他们成立一个专门委员会来检查这个问题).
9) We are going to discuss his suggestion that _______________(
取消期中考试).
10) It is ridiculous that _______________(
我们在一个总是下雨的国家还缺水).
11) It is essential that _______________(
每个人都为紧急情况做好准备).
12) _______________(
如果他按照我告诉他的办法订票), we would have had quite a comfortable journey.
13) I was to have made a speech _______________(
要不是有人把我的话打断了).
14) It didn’t rain last night. _______________(
要是下了,地就会湿的).
15) _______________(
如果我一直住在纽约), I would know the U.S. well now.
16) If the doctor had not come in time, _______________(
他现在就不在人间了).
17) But for his help, _______________(
我们就不会以这么低的价格租到房子了).
18) I used my calculator; _______________(
否则,我会花更长的时间才能算出这道题).
19) Were I in your place,
I would seize the opportunity without hesitation  (我会毫不犹豫地抓住机会).
20) Had it not been for their opposition, _______________(
这项法案早就通过了).
21) Should there be another world war,
the continued existence of the human race would be in danger (人类的继续存在就会有危险).
22) He walked lightly
lest he should awaken the baby (以免惊醒婴儿).

 

三、汉译英专项练习答案及解析
一、倍数增减的表示法
1) is 2.5 times greater than Force N2
(考点:倍数 + 形容词/副词比较级 + than
2) reacts three times as fast as the other one
(考点:倍数 + as + 形容词/副词 + as
3) is 49 times the size of the moon
(考点:倍数 + 名词)
4) wants to raise the rent by a third
(考点:动词 + by + 数词/百分比/倍数)
5) plan to double their investment
(考点:double + 名词)

二、时态
1) or the wedding will have finished by the time we get to the church
(考点:将来完成时)
2) the children had fallen asleep
(考点:过去完成时)
3) my sister will be taking her vacation at the seaside
(考点:将来进行时)
4) have been revising my resume all the morning
(考点:现在完成进行时)
5) No. It has been five years since I went on holiday
(考点:It has been … since sb. did sth. 表示某人有多长时间没有做某事了)
6) He has been in the army for 5 years
(考点:1. 现在完成时;2.要用持续性动词才能接一段时间)

三、被动语态
1) is being replaced by the computer and the projector
(考点:被动语态的现在进行时)
2) will have been published by the end of this year
(考点:被动语态的将来完成时)
3) can be used to demonstrate the way that cells work
(考点:1. 被动语态与情态动词联用; 2. 汉语有些没有字等标志词的句子也表示被动, 要译成英语的被动语态)
4) I was startled, for the prices were a great deal higher than I had anticipated
(考点:同“3”的考点2
5) Effective measures must be taken immediately
(考点:汉语的无主句通常翻译成英语的被动语态)

四、情态动词
1) but there is no answer. She can’t be at home
(考点:情态动词可以表示可能性,can’t 表示一定不
2) I may have left them in the coffee shop yesterday
(考点:情态动词can/could, may/might, must + 完成式用于表示对过去发生的动作的主观判断)
3) You must have dreamed of something terrible
(考点:同上)
4) You should have invited her to your graduation ceremony
(考点:情态动词should/ought to + have done” 用于评论过去应该做而实际并未做的动作,含有批评的意思)
5) I needn’t have put on my best suit to go to the party
(考点:情态动词needn’t + have + done”表示对过去发生的动作进行评论,认为无须发生不必做

五、虚拟语气
1) I had had your opportunities when I was young
(考点:I wish后的that从句中用过去完成式表示过去没有实现或不可能实现的愿望)
2) he had known this disease is curable
(考点:If only 引导的感叹句表示但愿要是……就好了,用法与 I wish…基本相同)
3) painted it blue, and without any decorations
(考点:would rather 后的that从句中用过去式表示不是事实)
4) measures were taken to solve the problem of traffic jams
(考点:It’s (about/high) time 后的that从句中用过去式,表示该是……的时候了
5) as though he were delivering a speech at an assembly
(考点:as if / as though引导的从句中用过去式表示和现在事实相反或对现在情况有所怀疑)
6) Jack (should) be sent to hospital right now
(考点:表示建议、命令、要求、想法的动词所接的宾语从句通常用“(that) sb. (should) do”的虚拟形式)
7) more mobile shops (should) be set up in the residential area
(考点:表示建议、命令、要求、想法的动词所接的主语从句通常用“(that) sb. (should) do”的虚拟形式)
8) they (should) set up a special board/committee to examine this problem
(考点:表示建议、命令、要求、想法的名词所接的表语从句通常用“(that) sb. (should) do”的虚拟形式)
9) the mid-term exams (should) be canceled
(考点:表示建议、命令、要求、想法的名词所接的同位语从句通常用“(that) sb. (should) do”的虚拟形式)
[
表示建议、命令、要求、想法的动词及其名词常见的有:advise (advice), agree (agreement), decide (decision), decree, demand, determine (determination), grant, indicate (indication), insist (insistence), order, prefer (preference), propose (proposal), request, require (requirement), resolve (resolution), stipulate (stipulation), suggest(suggestion), urge, vote;常见的这类动词还有:allow, arrange, ask, beg, concede, demonstrate, ensure, intend, move, pledge, pray]
10) we (should) be short of water in a country where it is always raining
(考点:在It is/was +形容词后的that从句中常用“sb. should do”的形式表示建议惊奇等。这类形容词常见的有:advisable, anxious, appropriate, compulsory, crucial, desirable, eager, essential, fitting, imperative, important, impossible, improper, natural, necessary, obligatory, preferable, proper, urgent, vital, willing等)
11) everyone (should) be prepared for emergency
(考点:同上)
12) If he had booked tickets in the way I told him
(考点:在非真实条件句中用过去完成式表示与过去的事实相反)
13) if I had not been interrupted
(考点:同上)
14) If it had rained, the ground would be wet
(考点:在非真实条件句中,当主句与从句表示的动作不是同时发生时,就根据情况用适当的谓语动词形式)
15) If I had been living in New York
(考点:同上)
16) he would be dead now
(考点:同上)
17) we could not have rent a house at such a low price
(考点:but for经常作为非真实条件句中if的代用语)
18) otherwise, it would have taken me more time to work out this question
(考点:otherwise也经常作为非真实条件句中if的代用语)
19) I would seize the opportunity without hesitation
(考点:在非真实条件句中如果有were, had, should这三个词,可以省去if,采用主谓语倒装的形式来表示条件)
20) this act would have been passed much earlier
(考点:同上)
21) the continued existence of the human race would be in jeopardy
(考点:同上)
22) lest he should awaken the baby
(考点:lest (以免)引导的从句通常用sb. should do的形式表示虚拟)

六、不定式
1) to complete a 24-story building in 10 months
(考点:不定式作主语时常用it作形式主语放在句首代替不定式,而将不定式移到谓语后面)
2) for us to have a good night’s sleep before the test
(考点:有时用介词for + 代词/名词来表示不定式的逻辑主语,这时整句的谓语描述的对象是事情,这种情况下谓语中常用的形容词有:necessary, important, possible, impossible, all right, essential等)
3) of you to donate so much money to the people in the disaster area
(考点:有时用介词of + 代词/名词来表示不定式的逻辑主语,这时整句的谓语描述的对象是人,这种情况下谓语中常用的形容词有:absurd, bold, brave, careful, careless, cowardly, cruel, foolish, generous, good, honest, kind, nice, polite, rude, selfish, silly, stupid, thoughtful, thoughtless, wicked, wise, wrong等)
4) not to punish those students who had been late for class
(考点:1. 用不定式结构作decide的宾语;2.不定式的否定形式是在to前加not
(能带不定式作宾语的动词常见的有:afford, agree, ask, attempt, beg, begin, bother, care, choose, claim, consent, decide, demand, desire, dislike, endeavor, expect, fail, fear, forget, happen, hate, help, hesitate, hope, intend, learn, like, love, manage, mean, neglect, offer, plan, pledge, prefer, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, remember, resolve, start, threaten, undertake, venture, volunteer, vow, want, wish
5) whether to visit their son in France
(考点:疑问词+不定式作动词wonder的宾语。能以这种结构作宾语的动词通常有ask, consider, decide, discover, explain, forget, guess, know, learn, observe, remember, see, tell, understand, wonder等)
6) warned me just now not to water flowers at noon
(考点:不定式作宾语补语)
7) invited him to give us a lecture on modern art
(考点:同上)
(能带不定式结构作宾语补语的动词有advise, allow, ask, beg, cause, challenge, command, compel, enable, determine, encourage, expect, feel, find, force, get, hate, have, hear, help, inform invite, let, like, make, mean, need, notice, notify, oblige, order, permit, persuade, remind, request, require, see, send, teach, tell, tempt, trouble, urge, want, warn, watch, wish等。注:划线的动词后面的不定式不带to
8) to be the chairman of students’ union in so large a university
(考点:动词 + it + 形容词/名词 + 不定式。it是形式宾语,不定式是真正宾语)
9) to apply what we have learned in class to practice
(考点:不定式作定语)
(不定式常用作以下名词/代词的定语:ability, ambition, anything, attempt, capability, chance, curiosity, desire, decision, determination, effort, failure, intention, need, nothing, opportunity, place, plan, promise, reason, right, something, tendency, time, way, wish等)
10) ruined our plan to show the film in the open air
(考点:同上)
11) the decision to build a nuclear power station in the suburbs
(考点:同上)
12) American woman to explore the outer space
(考点:由only, last, next,序数词或形容词最高级修饰的名词常用不定式作定语)
13) only to drop it on their own feet
(考点:不定式作结果状语)
14) to meet a high school classmate in the mountain village
(考点:不定式作原因状语)
15) to have taken up so much of your time
(考点:1. 不定式作原因状语;2. 不定式的完成时)
16) to be standing in the doorway when he rushed in
(考点:不定式的进行式)
17) to be treated as a guest
(考点:不定式的被动形式)
18) go to the campus bookstore to buy used books
(考点:不带to的不定式)
19) but play bridge the whole day
(考点:同上)
20) to wipe our feet on the mat before going into the room
(考点:当动词see, make, hear等用于被动语态时,不定式要保留to

七、分词
1) “Happy birthday to you” sung in Italian
(考点:分词作宾语补语)
catch, discover, feel, find, get, have, hear, keep, leave, make, notice, see, watch等动词常用分词形式作宾语补语)
2) parked in the fire lane
(考点:分词作定语)
3) killing thousands upon thousands of people
(考点:分词作结果状语)
4) raising the average yield by 15 percent
(考点:同上)
5) trying to deduce its operating principle
(考点:分词作伴随状语)
6) Seeing that everyone was bending over his/her book
(考点:分词作原因状语)
7) Deeply moved by the boy’s deeds
(考点:同上)
8) Seen from the eyes of a young friend
(考点:分词作方式状语)
9) Not having heard from his parents for a long time
(考点:1. 分词作原因状语;2.分词的否定形式;3.现在分词的完成式)

八、动名词
1) Taking a cold bath every day
(考点:动名词作主语)
2) making their daughter do what she didn’t like to do
(考点:动名词作动词的宾语)
(下列动词后的宾语只能是动名词而不能是不定式:admit, advise, allow, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, delay, deny, dislike, dread, encourage, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, finish, can’t help, imagine, keep, mind, miss, permit, postpone, practice, prevent, propose, recall, recollect, resent, resist, risk, can’t stand, stop, suggest
3) getting our goods into the international market
(考点:动名词作介词的宾语)
4) crying over spilled milk
(考点:动名词用于固定结构。动名词经常与以下词组连用:be worth, have difficulty (in), it be no good/use/worthwhile, there be no need/no point in, how/what about, what’s the point of, what’s the use of
5) having peeked at his neighbor’s test paper
(考点:动名词的完成式)
6) being promoted to manager
(考点:动名词的被动式)

九、非谓语动词用法区别
1) working very hard.
(考点:mean表示意味着
2) to drive there, but his car broke down
(考点:mean表示打算
(类似需要区别的动词还有forget, remember, regret, go on, stop等)
3) talking to his mother

(考点:强调正在进行)

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