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考研作文新题型——摘要讲座

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yunstars 时间:2006-05-08 21:02  234次点击 | 0 关注

1)陈述型论文摘要。陈述型论文摘要(Descriptive Abstract)一般只说明论文的主题是什么,多半不介绍内容。

  例1

  ABSTRACT

  This article extends Lehand and Pyle(1997)model to include the possibility that manager may exploit cooperate wealth through transactions with affiliated companies and/or individuals.The results of our model show that the amounts of wealth exploitation are affected by several factors.They are inorderly managerial stockholding,the severity of penalty,the manager's risk attitude,firm's expected future cash flows,and the variance of future cash flows.What's more, the relation between managerial holding and the amount of wealth exploitation is not seperate.Wealth exploitation rises with management share holdings before the break point.When managerial holding exceeds the break point,any further increase in the management holdings will decrease the amount of wealth exploitation.

  例2

  ABSTRACT

  The effect of price limit on the stock return,volatility and the structural change is analyzed through a generalized autoregressive conditional heterscedasticity(GARCH)model.The interaction between stock returns and its volatility is permitted in each price limit regime.While the stock return does not go up when the price limit goes down from 5%to 7%.The stock volatility,on the other hand,is substantially different across three regimes. The higher the price limit,the larger is the volatility.In end the GARCH model does not suffer from the structural change when price limits change.

  例3

  ABSTRACT

  This issue presents a complete survey on the integrin,immunoglobulin,and selection families cellular expression patterns on endothelial, resident cells and graft infiltrating cells in human stomach, heart ,and lung transplants.It describes the patterns of cellular expression and inducibility in different pathological conditions of the graft.It also discusses the implications for the organ specific appearance of inflammatory reactions in human stomach,heart and lung transplants as for immunosuppressive and therapeutic interventions.

  例4

  ABSTRACT

  We classfied firm's finacing decisions into four categories:internal financing banking,bank loans,convertible bonds and preferred stocks,and new common shares.

  This paper uses pooled cross-section and time series data.When the adjusted data is used,we find that B/M has explanatory power to stock returns for the new-issue category;C/F for the internal financing category.

  The size variable is also significant in all categories.However,the sign is not consistent.The convertible category has reverse size effect and others have size effects.As for the E/P variable,we don't find any additional explanatory power to stock returns for any category.The use of different definition of size hardly changes our results.

  例5

  Contact Problems in the Classical Theory of Elasticity

  CONTACT PROBLEMS IN THE CLASSICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

  by G.M.Gladwell

  This article gives an account of contact problems in the classical theory of elasticity.It begins from fundamental principles and aims to offer information on recent developments on this subject that the reader can take advantage to widen his horizon of contact problems.

  例6

  Use of Engineering Metals

  Use of Engineering Metals

  ABSTRACT

  This article shows us the importance of metals in our daily life,especially in machine building and engineering construction.Metals that are used in industry are called engineering metals,of which the most widely-used is iron. Therefore,production of iron is very critical to the development of a nation.

  例7

  Pure and Applied Science

  Pure and Applied Science

  ABSTRACT

  In this article ,the author holds that pure science is fundermentally concerned with the development of theories establishing relationships between the phenomena of the universe. On the other hand applied science,is directly connected with the application of the working laws of pure science to the practical affairs in the life,and to man's increasing control over the environment,thus leading to the development of new techniques,processes and machines.It is evident that many branches of applied science are practical extensions of purely theoretical or experimental work.It shows to us that these two branches of science are mutually dependent and interacting.

  2)信息型论文摘要。信息型论文摘要(Informational Abstract)与陈述型论文摘要相比,略有不同。它除了介绍论文的主题外,还应介绍论文的主要观点以及各观点部分的核心内容。这种形式实际中相对少见。显然,这种形式的摘要较陈述型摘要长得多。例如:

  例1

  Probable Development of Agricultural Mechanization

  Probable Development of Agricultural Mechanization

  ABSTRACT

  This article reviews the past achievements in agricultural mechanization and aims to predict the developments in the immediate future.It is widely acknowledged that to cope with greater crop output,it is necessary to make use of more powerful equipment that is capable of more extensive work within the limited time.

  The main problems are discussed under the following headings.

  1)General Trend of Machanization

  2)Mechanization of Crop Farming

  3)Mechanization of Animal Husbandry

  The article concludes that further progress of agricultural mechanization depends on,to a great extent,the development of mechanical industry,which should be spurred and encouraged.

  例2

  Cultural Factors in Translation and Their Transfer

  Cultural Factors in Translation and Their Transfer

  ABSTRACT

  This thesis attempts to apply general knowledge of linguistics,anthropology and translation to the research of cultural factors in translation and their transfer.

  The thesis concludes a brief introduction and four chapters.The introduction presents the specific topic and raises several related issues.Chapter One is devoted to the relationship between language,culture and translation.Chapter Two focus on the categorization of cultural factors in translation.Chapter Three talks about three topics:translatability,major translation methods of cultural factors,and the transfer of some important cultural subcategories.The last chapter,gives an analysis of some inappropriate translations and draws a general conclusion for the whole thesis.

  例3

  ABSTRACT

  Internationalization and liberalization of business activities have become two of the most significant phenomena for the successful operations of contemporary enterprises.At present,the prevalence of national protectionism and the establishment of regional economic communites,have further enhanced many firms to take part in overseas investments in order that the tariff and non-tarriff barriers of the products could be reduced or eliminated.

  Yet ,companies operate in different countries with different political,legal,economic,and social cultural surroundings might have different management styles and strategic operating patterns.Traditionally,the Japanese and the US management patterns are two of the most important reference models for the operations of domestic enterprises.Thus, to promote the success of business internationalization activities,it would be very helpful for the domestic firms in Taiwan to evaluate the similarites and differences of the characteristics of business operations for the US and the Japanese firms especially on management styles,organizational structures,and business performances.

  Through a series of personal interview and mail survey,this study concluded the following findings:

  (1)Firms with different investment origins(i.e.,Taiwanese,American,and Japanese firms)tended to operate differently on constructs of cooperate objectives,organizational structures,competitive strategies, and management performances.

  (2)For cooperate objectives,Japanese firms tended to emphasize organizational development objectives through educating and activating human resources,while American firms favor financial objective such as improving cash flow and profitability.For organizational structures,American firms achieved higher levels of delegation authority and operation formalization than those of Japanese and Taiwanees firms.For competitive strategies,American firms tended to emphasize product differentiation and cost leadership strategies while Japanese firms favor process innovation and product differentiation strategies.

  (3)Firms selecting process innovation and product development strategies tended to emphasize both organizational development and sales growth objectives .These firms tended to be very sensitive on the potentials of industry development.In addition,firms adopting cost leadership strategies tended to emphasize sales growth objectives.In a word,these firms seemed to exercise higher levels of formalization and standardization of business activities.

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