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TOEFL模拟测试题(2-2)

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i_windriver 时间:2005-11-15 22:33  416次点击 | 0 关注

READING COMPREHENSION

Question 1-10

?牐牐燭he agricultural revolution in the nineteenth century involved two things: the invention
of labor-saving machinery and the development of scientific agriculture. Labor-saving
machinery naturally appeared first where labor was scarce. "In Europe, said Thomas
Jefferson, "the object is to make the most of their land, labor being abundant: here it is to
make the most of our labor, land being abundant. It was in the United States, therefore,
that the great advances in nineteenth-century agricultural machinery first came.

?牐牐? At the opening of the century, with the exception of a crude plow, farmers could have
carried practically all of the existing agricultural implements on their backs; by 1860,
most of the machinery in use today had been designed in an early form. The most
important of the early inventions was the iron plow. As early as 1790 Charles Newbold
of New Jersey had been working on the idea of a cast-iron plow and spent his entire
fortune in introducing his invention. The farmers, however, were not interested in it,
claiming that the iron poisoned the soil and made the weeds grow. Nevertheless, many
people devoted their attention to the plow, until in 1869 James Oliver of South Bend,
Indiana, turned out the first chilled-steel plow.

1.What is the main topic of the passage?
(A) The need for agricultural advances to help feed a growing population
(B) The development of safer machines demanded by the labor movement
(C) Machinery that contributed to the agricultural revolution
(D) New Jersey as a leader in the agricultural revolution

2.The word "naturally" in line 3 is closest in meaning to
(A) unsurprisingly
(B) gradually
(C) apparently
(D) safely

3. The expression "make the most of" in line 4 is closest in meaning to
(A) get the best yield from
(B) raise the price of
(C) exaggerate the worth of
(D) earn a living on

4. Which of the following can be inferred from what Thomas Jefferson said (line 3-5)?
(A) Europe was changing more quickly than the United States.
(B) Europe had greater need of farm machinery than the United States did.
(C) The United States was finally running out of good farmland.
(D) There was a shortage of workers on United States farms.

5.The word "here" in line 4 refers to
(A) Europe
(B) United States
(C) New Jersey
(D) Indiana

6. What point is the author making by stating that farmers could carry nearly all their tools on
their backs.
(A) Farmers had few tools before the agricultural revolution.
(B) People in the United States were traditionally self-reliant.
(C) Life on the farm was extremely difficult.
(D) New tools were designed to be portable.

7. When was the iron plow invented?
(A)In 1790.
(B) In the early 1800 s.
(C) In 1869.
(D) In the early 1900 s.

8. According to the passage, which of the following statements about Charles Newbold is true?
(A) He was James Oliver s assistant.
(B) He was born in Europe.
(C) He was opposed to scientific agriculture.
(D) He spent his own money to promote his invention.

9. The word "it" in line 12 refers to
(A) scientific agriculture
(B) James Oliver s invention
(C) the cast-iron plow
(D) Charles Newbold s fortune

10. Why did farmers reject Newbold s plow?
(A) Their horses were frightened by it.
(B) They preferred lighter tools.
(C) It was too expensive.
(D) They thought it would ruin the land.

Questions 1l-20

?牐牐牐牐燗ccording to some scientists, migratory birds should be able to withstand the winter.
A bird s feathery coat is good insulation against the cold. Because a bird is warm-
blooded, its body temperature always remains constant, even if the temperature of its
surroundings changes.

?牐牐牐牐燭he factors that trigger migratory behavior in birds are difficult to explain. This
behavior seems to be instinctive, not learned. For example, many northern species leave
their summer homes while the weather is still warm and the food supply plentiful. Young
arctic terns born at the arctic breeding grounds will lake off with the flock for distant
lands they have never seen.

?牐牐牐牐? Bird migrations are probably regulated by the glandular system. Scientists suspect
that the changing length of the day is the factor that triggers migratory behavior. In an
experiment, migratory birds were kept in artificially lighted rooms. It was found that
if periods of darkness were lengthened proportionately, the glands of the birds became
active. These glands secrete hormones, which are chemicals that control numerous body
functions. Shorter periods of daylight seem to change the hormone balance of birds, so
that they retain more fat. This stored fat is the fuel that provides the energy for a long
flight. The same experiment revealed that the birds became more excited as the artificial
night was lengthened. It is probably no coincidence that most flocks begin their migratory
flights during the night.

11. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Common migratory paths for birds
(B) Why birds migrate
(C) Species of birds that do not migrate
(D) Migration in cold climates

12. The word "withstand" in line 1 is closest in meaning to
(A) prefer
(B) tolerate
(C) regulate
(D) understand

13. According to the passage, which of the following protects birds against cold weather?
(A) Glands
(B) Hormones
(C) Feathers
(D) Artificial light

14. The word "constant" in line 3 is closest in meaning to
(A) invariable
(B) persistent
(C) predictable
(D) responsive

15. The word "its" in line 3 refers to
(A) temperature >(B) cold
(C) coat
(D) bird

16. In lines 7-9, the author mentions young arctic terns as an example of birds that
(A) do not migrate
(B) breed during migration
(C) migrate instinctively
(D) adapt to the cold

l7. The word "they" in line 16 refers to
(A) glands
(B) birds
(C) body functions
(D) hormones

18. According to the passage, birds exposed to longer periods of darkness experience all of the following changes EXCEPT
(A) activated glands
(B) excited behavior
(C) retention of more fat
(D) increased appetite

19. In the experiment mentioned in the passage, the scientists adjusted the birds
(A) food supply
(B) body temperatures
(C) exposure to light
(D) brain chemistry

20. Where in the passage does the author mention the substance that enables birds to fly long distances?
(A) Lines 2-4
(B) Lines 5-7
(C) Lines 10-11
(D) Lines 16-17

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