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如何找主要事实特定细节

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时间:2005-11-13 13:38  178次点击 | 0 关注

(How to Find Specific Details)

     在文章中,作者总是要通过许多具体内容(Details)来说明、解释、证明或分析文章的主题思想。在通读全文、掌握了文章主题思想的基础上,读者还应该抓住阐述和发展主题思想的主要事实,或者按要求找出特定细节,这是通过阅读获取信息的重要能力。

    在通读全文的过程中,我们要特别注意涉及who, what, when, where和why均可找到回答。但是,需要注意的是,这些问题的表述常常不是采用文章中的原话,而是使用同义的词语来进行提问。因此,在回答此类问题时,首先要认真审题看清问题提问的是什么。然后,根据所涉及到的问题,快速扫视到文章中相应的部分,找到与答题内容相关的关键词或短语,再细读一、两遍。在确信理解了原文的基础上来确定正确答案。在查到的关键词句下面应划线,以引起注意,便于记忆与复查。此外,如果回答此类问题需要读者具有一定的背景知识,那也只是最基本的常识。因此,切勿脱离文中内容而根据自己的想像或其它来源的知识来选择答案。

在回答此类问题时,应注意以下几个问题:

一、当问及时间、距离以及其它用数字表示的细节时,有时需要进行计算方能得出答案。此时要把计算过程简单列出,不可随意心算一下即确定答案。

例一:Directions: Read the following passage and choose the best answer to each question.

The Flag of the U.S. — The Stars and Stripes

The history of the flag of the U. S. has become so cluttered by myth that hardly any facts can be established. One thing all agree on is that the Stars and Stripes originated as the result of a resolution adopted by Congress June 14, 1777. It read:

Resolved: that the flag of the United States be thirteen stripes,

alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new constellation.

The flag of 1777 was used until 1795. Then, on the admission of Vermont and Kentucky to the Union, Congress passed an act that after May 1, 1795, the flag should have 15 stripes and 15 stars.

When new states were admitted it became evident that the flag would become burdened with stripes. Congress thereupon ordered that after July 4, 1818, the flag should have 13 stripes, symbolizing the 13 original states; that the union have 20 stars, and that whenever a new state was admitted a new star should be added on the July 4 following the admission.

The 50 — star flag of the United States was raised for the first time officially on July 4, 1960, at Fort McHenry in Baltimore. The 50th star had been added for Hawaii, a year earlier the 49th, for Alaska. Before that, no star had been added since 1912, when New Mexico and Arizona were admitted to the Union.

1) Since 1777, the U.S. flag has changed its design ___________ .

(A) twice (B) 3 times

(C) 5 times (D) more than 5 times

2) In 1912, before July 4, the U. S. flag had ___________ .

(A) 15 stars (B) 20 stars

(C) 46 stars (D) 48 stars

3) The 49th and 50th states to join the U.S.A. were, in their correct order, ___________ .

(A) Alaska and Hawaii (B) Hawaii and Alaska

(C) New Mexico and Arizona (D) Arizona and New Mexico

4) Congress decided in 1818 that the U.S. flag should have 13 stripes because ___________ .

(A) since 1777 it had always had 13 stripes

(B) since 1777 it had always had more than 13 stripes.

(C) In 1818 there were only 13 states in the Union of the U.S.A.

(D) At the founding of the Union of the U.S.A. there had been only 13 states.

问题(1)要求回答美国国旗图案自1777年以来变化了几次。回答这样的题目须把文中所有提及1777年以来美国国旗变更次数的关键词语划出:

1795;July 4, 1818; since 1912; a year earlier the 49th; July 4, 1960

    文中似乎只提及5处,但是文内又提到1818年时为20颗星,以后每加入一个州增加一颗星,从文中又可看出1912年增加的是第47和48颗星。从第20颗星到47颗星之间必然还有若干次变动,因此答案应为(D),即:变动次数为5次以上。

    问题(2)提问的是1912年7月4日以前的情况。由于新墨西哥和亚里桑那于1912年7月4日加入联邦,国旗上星的数目增至48颗。因此,1912年7月4日以前国旗上的星数应为46颗。正确答案为(C)。

问题(3)的答案为(A)。其根据为The 50th star had been added for Hawaii, a year earlier the 49th, for Alaska.

问题(4)的答案为(D),其根据是symbolizing the 13 original states

二、 当问题要求对某一事实作出正误判断或询问文中是否提到某一事实时,我们应先把所给的选择项大体上看一下,做到心中有数。然后,根据选择项中提供的线索,迅速找到文章中相应的部分,细读一下有关内容。与文中内容一致的即可肯定,不一致的即可否定。注意,在回答Not True之类问题时,必须逐项找出须肯定的内容,方可确定要否定的内容。切勿一遇到自己认为不正确的内容,便匆忙答题,不再去考虑其它选择项,这样常常会导致错误。

例二:

Directions: Read the following passage and choose the best answer to the question.

One word that sums up our age better than any other — whether “our age ”is “the technological age” of western countries or the “modernizing age” of China — is the word CHANGE. But has change not always been present? True, but never before at such a breakneck speed. Today it is more than just change. It is unprecedented change. In such a world, reading provides the best tool we have for keeping up and for avoiding future shock in a world continually being remade.

Which of the following is NOT true?

(A) Western countries and China are being remade.

(B) Reading will help understand our age.

(C) The present age and future world are continually changing.

(D) Reading is the best tool provided by our age.

(A)、(B)、(C)项均与文章中的意义一致,(D)不符。因为文中说的是“Reading serves as

the best tool for us.”(对我们来说,阅读可以作为一个最好的工具。);而不是如选择项(D)所表示的那样:“Reading is the best tool provided by our age.”(阅读是由我们时代所提供的最好的工具)。所以,我们将答案确定为(D)。


三、在文章中,为避免重复提及某一词或短语,作者常常使用指代词(Reference Words)来代替。在寻找细节时,读者须准确理解被指代的对象。通常,我们可根据上下文的句子结构、主谓一致关系以及语义关系等来确定所指代的内容。

例三:

The basketball team never lacked vociferous supporters, but they rarely responded to this show of enthusiasm.

文中黑体词they若是指高声呼叫的支持音,则与后面的意思(对这种热情很少作出响应)不合。因此they只能指球队队员。

例四:

Scott Fitzgerald, who first introduced him to a publisher, was one of the few contemporary writers that Hemingway did not turn against.

文中黑体him若指的是主语Scott Fitzgerald,则应该用反身代词himself,而不能用him,因此这里只能指后文的〖WT〗Hemingway.

在阅读理解测试中,要求查找主要事实或特定细节的问题常有以下几种形式:

1. Which of the following statements is (not) true (or correct)?

2. Which of the following is not mentioned in the text?

3. All of the following are true except...

4. The author (or the passage) states that...

5. According to the passage, when (where, why, how, who, what, which, etc)?


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