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雅思英语考试写作技巧之英语写作要诀

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时间:2005-10-07 03:20  141次点击 | 0 关注

  英语写作要诀

  Agreement:主语和谓语在人称、数上的一致,关系代词与先行词的一致。

  Ambiguity:尽量不去使用可能引起歧义的词语或句子。

  Brief:文章“简为贵”,要抓住要点,简明扼要。

  Coherence:文理通顺,前后连贯。

  Development:主题的发挥应当充分、合理、正确。

  Division:词汇、句子、段落要分配使用得当,划分要清楚,避免使用重复字句和种子片段。

  Figures:正确合理使用各类修辞格式。

  Inflated diction:不使用做作的语言。

  Key:用适当的关键词突出主题,每段都应有主题句。

  Logical:内容要符合逻辑。

  Message:信息要新鲜、确实、可信。

  Omit:合理删除多余的不必要部分。

  Proposition:主张、观点、论述要清楚肯切、合情入理。

  Punctuation:正确适时使用标点符号。

  Relevant:文章一定要要题。

  Sentence pattern:句型要尽量多样化。

  Strait:开门见山,直来直去。

  Style:文体恰切,适合内容要求。

  Tense:动词时态要正确、一致、变化合理。

  Theme:选题得当,主题突出。

  谈句型的灵活运用

  句子也是如此,我们提倡简炼,但不是说都用简单句。有人认为在写作考试中,采用简单句、短句、容易掌握,不在会出错,因而也最保险。这话没有错,但简单句用得太多,造成简单句的堆彻实际上是语言技巧不成熟、不老练,甚至语言水平低下的表现。在阅卷人员看来,同样的意思内容,一个考生能够运用比较复杂的句子结构来表达,其语言水平当然要比只会用简单句来表达的考生的语言水平高出一截,就是有点错也不妨碍他比后者取得较高的分数,因为他的难度系数要高。在某种意义上来说,在词数相同的作文中,语言水平越高,语言技巧越熟练,句子的数目也就越少。这就意味着句子长了,句子结构复杂了。

  当然,我们反对过多地使用简单句并不是鼓励学生去刻意追求长句、复杂句。我们追求的是句子结构的多变。一篇文章能根据表达的内容使用不同的句子结构,会产生较好的艺术效果。

  例子1 The Career I Pursue的主体段:

  A variety of reasons have led me to choose this occupation over other more lucrative ones. First, teaching is learning. To make my lectures more interesting, I have to read more books, explore new knowledge and gain a better understanding of the world-the very thing I like to do in my life. Second, teaching means freedom. As a teacher, I can freely express my opinions and explain them in my own way since nobody will interfere with me. Finally, I like teaching because it offers a certain peace of mind. No more rushing to catching a morning bus, no more anxiety to please a boss, and no more worries about being laid off because you are getting old.

  文中有4个词的短句:First, teaching is learning.也有27个词的长句:To make my lectures more interesting, I have to read more books, explore new knowledge and gain a better understanding of the world-the very thing I like to do in my life.有简单句,也有复杂句:As a teacher, I can freely express my opinions and explain them in my own way since nobody will interfere with me;还有同位语句,断裂句,排比句,比较句等,因而文章读起来节奏感强。所谓句子变化,主要是指句子的开头要有变化,句子的结构要有变化,句子的长度要有变化。不要连续使用几个简单句,要学会使用复杂句。

  例子2

  a)Teenagers are pressured by school work. They arealso encouraged by their peers. Under suchcircumstances, they resort to smoking. But sometimesthey feel a little guilty.

  b)Pressured by school work and encouraged by theirpeers, teenagers often resort to smoking, toughthey feel a little guilty sometimes.

  不要总是以有生命的名词和人称代词开头(受汉语表达习惯的影响,不少考生都喜欢以I,People,We等开头)。

  例子3

  a)Many people think birth control is quite necessaryin China.

  b)It is widely/commonly thought/believed/held/acceptedthat birth control is quite necessary in China.

  a)More and more people agree (realize/are aware)that women should enjoy full equality with men.

  b)There is a growing agreement (realization/awareness)that women should enjoy full equality with men.

  a)Many Chinese people have gone to the UnitedStates in the past 15 years.

  b)The past 15 years have brought many Chinesepeople to the United States.

  a)We almost forget this event.

  b)This event is now almost fading from our memory.

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