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全国职称英语等级考试全真题(卫生类)

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时间:2005-10-07 02:13  294次点击 | 0 关注

第一部分 阅读理解 (75分) 

Passage 1 

Until the twentieth century cigarettes were not an important threat (威胁) to public health. Men used tobacco mainly in the form of cigars (雪茄烟), chewing tobacco, pipe tobacco(烟草), and snuff (鼻烟). Most women did not use tobacco at all. 

The cigarette industry began in the 1870s with the development of the cigarette manufacturing machines. This made it possible to produce great numbers of cigarettes very quickly, and it reduced the price. 

Today cigarettes smoking is a widespread habit. About forty-three percent of the adult men and thirty-one percent of the adult women in the United States smoke cigarettes regularly. It is encouraging to note, however, that millions of people have given up the smoking habit. Seventy-five percent of the male population and forty-six percent of the these men and eleven percent of the women have stopped smoking. The number of persons who have given up smoking is increasing. 

Men as a group smoke more than women. Among both men and women the age group with the highest proportion (比例) of smokers is the age group 24-44. 

Income, education, and occupation all play a part in determining a person's smoking habits. City people smoke more than people living on farms. Well-educated men with high incomes are less likely to smoke cigarettes than men with fewer years of schooling and lower incomes. On the other hand if a well-educated man with a high income smokes as all, he is likely to smoke more packs of cigarettes per day. 

The situation is somewhat different for women. There are slightly more smokers among women with higher family incomes and higher education than among the lower income and lower educational groups. These more highly educated women tend to smoke more heavily. 

Among teenagers (少年) the pictures is similar. There are fewer teenager smokers from upper-income, well-educated families and fewer from families living in farm areas. High school students who are preparing for college are less likely to smoke than those who do not plan to continue their education after high school. Children are most likely to start smoking, if one or both of their parents smoke. 

1. Men use tobacco mainly in ________ forms in the past. 

 A. one 

 B. two 

 C. three 

 D. four 

2. The cigarette industry began ________. 

 A. one hundred years ago 

 B. at the turn of the century 

 C. in the eighteen seventies 

 D. in the eighteen century 

3. In the United States _______ smoke cigarettes. 

 A. about forty-three percent of people 

 B. about thirty-one percent of people 

 C. only old people 

 D. about forty-three percent of the grown - up men and thirty-one percent of the grown -up women 

4. A man's smoking habit is partly determined by ________. 

 A. his income 

 B. his education 

 C. his occupation 

 D. all of the above 

5. Children _________ to start smoking, if their parents smoke. 

 A. are most likely 

 B. are less likely 

 C. hate 

 D. do not want 

Passage 2 

Many of us believe that a person's mind becomes less active as he grows older. But this is not true, according to Dr. Jarvik, professor of psychiatry (精神病学) at the University of California. She has studied the mental functioning of aging persons for several years. For example, one of her studies concerns 136 pairs of identical twins (孪生儿), who were first examined when they were already 60 years old. As Dr. Jarvik continued the study of the twins into their 70s and 80s, their minds did not generally decline as was expected. 

However, there was some decline in their psycho-motor speed. This means that it took them longer to accomplish mental tasks than it used to. But when speed was not a factor, they lost very little intellectual ability over the years. In general, Dr. Jarvik's studies have shown that there is no decline in knowledge or reasoning ability. This is true not only with those in their 30s and 40s, but with those in their 60s and 70s as well. 

It is true older people themselves often complain that their memory is not as good as it once was. However, much of what we call "loss of memory" is not that at all. There was usually incomplete learning in the first place. For example, the older person perhaps had trouble hearing, or poor vision, or inattention, or was trying to learn the new thing at too fast a pace. In the cases where the older person's mind really seems to become less active, it is not necessarily a sign of becoming less active due to old age. Often it is simply a sign of a depressed emotional (压抑 感情) state.  

6. According to Dr. Jarvik's studies, middle-aged and older persons would expect to __________. 

 A. remember less 

 B. reason better 

 C. learn fewer new things 

 D. lose no intellectual ability 

7. Mental decay due to aging is _________. 

 A. common 

 B. much more common than most people believe 

 C. much less common than most people believe 

 D. true of those over sixty 

8. A long-term study of 136 pairs of twins showed that _________. 

 A. they lost a little ability to reason over the years 

 B. they only factor which decline over the years was their speed with which to perform mental tasks 

 C. their memory was not as good as it had once been 

 D. their minds became a bit more active as they grew older 

9. According to the passage, all the following are instances of "incomplete learning" except _________. 

 A. poor hearing 

 B. bad eyesight 

 C. lack of attention 

 D. the attempt to learn too many new things 

10. What we call mental decay is usually a sign of _________. 

 A. a low-spirited state 

 B. a worsening state of health 

 C. old age 

 D. nervous tension 

Passage 3 

For hundreds of years, diseases caused by lack in nutrition (营养) were known to men. Some common nutritional diseases are beriberi (脚气), and scurvy (坏血病). In the 18th century, James Lind, a Scottish doctor, discovered a cure beriberi - whole rice. 

A British scientist in 1906 showed that certain foods contain substances important to the growth and development of the body. In time these substances were called vitamins, meaning essential to life. Today there are 13 known vitamins. The human body produces only three of them. 

Vitamins regulate (调节) the way the body changes food into energy and living tissues (组织). Each vitamins has a definite use and the lack of one vitamin can interfere with the function of another. The continued lack of one vitamin can cause a vitamin lack disease. 

The best way for a healthy person to get vitamins is to eat a balanced diet. Eggs, milk, meat, vegetables, fruits, and whole - grain are the most common sources of the necessary variety of foods. 

Vitamins help to speed up certain chemical reactions in the body. These reactions are essential for health. Without vitamins, these reactions would occur very slowly or not at all. 

Truly vitamins have been correctly named - essential to good health and life. 

11. Men have know about nutritional diseases __________. 

 A. a long time 

 B. in 18th century 

 C. recently 

 D. in 1906 

12. Beriberi is a type of _________. 

 A. food 

 B. vitamin 

 C. fruit 

 D. disease 

13. It takes scientists _______ to know how many vitamins there are. 

 A. a long time 

 B. a few years 

 C. a short time 

 D. a number of experiments 

14. Human body produces __________ kinds of vitamins. 

 A. all kinds of 

 B. five 

 C. thirteen 

 D. three 

15. Eating _______ is the best way to get vitamins. 

 A. few things 

 B. vegetables 

 C. fruits 

 D. many kinds of food 

第二部分 完成句子 (25分) 

根据短文内容完成句子,每个空格只能填一个单词。有 单词第一个字母已经给出,请将其余字母补全。 

Some psychologists (心理学家) maintain that mental acts such as thinking are not performed in the brain alone, but that one's muscles also participate (参加). It may be said that we think with our muscles in somewhat the same way that we listen to music without bodies. 

You surely are not surprised to be told that to music not only with your ears but with your whole body. Few people can listen to music that is more or less familiar without moving their body or more specifically (具体地), some part of their body. Often when one listens to a concert on the radio, he is tempted to direct the orchestra (管弦乐队) even though knows where to direct the orchestra even though he knows there is an able conductor on the job. 

Strange as this behavior may be, there is a very good reason for it. One cannot derive all possible enjoyment form music unless he participates, so to speak, in its performance. The listener "feels" himself into the music with more or less pronounced motions of his body. 

The muscles of the body actually participate (参加) in the mental process of thinking in the same way, but this participation is less obvious because it is less pronounced. 

16. Some psychologists believe that thinking is performed not only by one's brain but also one's _________. 

17. The process of thinking and that of listening are similar in that muscles ________ in both processes. 

18. _________ people are able to listen to familiar music without moving some part of their body. 

19. Body movement are necessary in order for the listener to ________ the music fully. 

20. According to the passage, muscle participation in the process of thinking is not readily a_______. 

第三部分 阅读理解 (80分) 

Passage 1 

Most of us lead unhealthy lives: we spend far too much time sitting down. If, in addition, we are careless about our diets, our bodies soon become flabby (不结实 ) and systems sluggish (缺乏活力 ). Then the guilt feelings start: " I must go on a diet", "I must try to lose weight", "I must get more fresh air and exerciser", "I must stop smoking", "I must try to keep fit." There are some aspects of our unhealthy lives that we cannot avoid. I am thinking of such features of modern urban life as pollution, noise, rushed meals and stress. But keeping fit is a way to minimise (减少到最低限度)the effects of these evils. 

The usual suggestion to a person who is looking for a way to keep fit is to take up some sport or other. While it is true that every weekend you will find people playing football and tennis in the local park, they are outnumbered (超过) a hundred to one by the people who are simply watching them. It is an illusion to think that you will get fit by going to watch the football match every Saturday, unless you count the effort required to fight your way throughout the crowds to get to the best seats. 

For those who do not particularly enjoy competitive (竞争性 ) sports, it is especially difficult to do so if you are not good at them. There are such activities for one person as cycling, walking and swimming. What often happens, though, is that you do them in such a leisurely way, so slowly, that it is doubtful if you are doing yourself much good, apart from the fact that you have at least managed to get up out of your armchair. Of course you can be very thorough about exercise. Many sports shops now sell frightening pieces of apparatus, chest-expanders and other mysterious gadgets (小装置) of shiny spring steel, which, according to the advertisements, will bring you up to an Olympic standard of fitness, provided that you follow a regular programme of exercises. Such programmes generally involve long periods of time bending these curious bits of metal into improbable shapes. 

It all strikes me as utterly boring and also time-consuming. Somebody suggested recently that all such effort was pointless anyway because if you spend half an hour every day jogging round the local park, you will add to your life exactly the number of hours that you wasted doing the "jogging" in the first place. The argument is false even if the facts are correct, out there is no doubt that exercise in itself can be boring. 

Even after you have found a routine for keeping in shape, through sport or gymnastics, you are still only half way to good health, because, according to the experts, you must also master the art of complete mental and physical relaxation. Now, this does not mean sleeping in the armchair of going dancing (which is a good form of exercise in itself). It has something to do with deep breathing, emptying your mind of all thoughts, worries and so on. 

21. If you want to keep fit, you should __________. 

 A. go in for not only competitive sports, but also solitary ones 

 B. go in for not only sports, but also enjoy your relaxation 

 C. not put on too much weight 

 D. not spend long hours sitting in your armchair 

22. The latter part of the last sentence of Para. 2 ("… unless you count the effort… get to the best seats.") suggests that the author thinks that ________. 

 A. fighting your way through crowds is a good exercise 

 B. best seats are difficult to secure 

 C. being a spectator is not a way to keep fit 

 D. getting through crowds is not an easy job 

23. Which statement reflects the author's point of view on solitary sports? 

 A. They do not contribute much to your health. 

 B. They can be done in a slow way. 

 C. They lack a sense of competition. 

 D. They can be done at any time and in any place. 

24. In Para. 4, the author quotes: "… if you spend half an hour every day jogging round the local park, you will add to your life exactly the number of hours that you wasted doing the 'jogging' in the first place." He thinks that the statement is _____________. 

 A. partially correct 

 B. absolutely true 

 C. untrue 

 D. paradoxical 

25. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a way to good health in the article? 

 A. Mental and physical relaxation. 

 B. Competitive and solitary sports. 

 C. Pieces of exercise apparatus. 

 D. Mountain climbing of fresh-air breathing. 

Passage 2 

Whether you eat to live or live to eat, food should help keep you well. In our modern world of processed and preserved foods, many nutritionists (营养学家) are suggesting that we can stay healthy with a well-balanced diet of plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables and not too much red meat, salt, or sugar. In fact, eating natural, unprocessed foods that are made from scratch, instead of artificial and junk (假 ) foods, may not only keep you healthy, but save your money, too. 

To stay healthy, you must also be careful to avoid food poisoning, a common, unpleasant, and often dangerous illness that affects one out of every six Americans each year. Food poisoning is often caused by salmonella bacteria (沙门化菌) in food, especially raw meats and dairy products. Heat usually kills the bacteria, and refrigeration keeps them from growing. So remember to keep hot food hot and cold food cold. Also, be sure to keep your hands and cooking utensils clean so you don't transfer germs to the food while you are preparing it. 

If you use canned food, always check the cans for leaks or puffiness. A puffed can could mean botulism, a fatal type of food poisoning that you cannot see or smell. Never taste any food that you suspect has spoiled. Instead, return any damaged cans or spoiled food to the grocery store, and the manager will refund (归还) your money. When using processed foods, be sure to read all the labels and check the ingredients and the freshness date before you buy or eat the food. 

Eating is one of the joys of life. Being careful about what you put in your mouth can keep it that way. 

26. According to most nutritionists, a diet of _________ is good for you. 

 A. red meat and sweets 

 B. artificial and junk foods 

 C. fresh fruits and vegetables 

 D. processed and preserved foods 

27. To stay healthy, one must ___________. 

 A. not eat unprocessed meat and dairy products 

 B. avoid your hands touching all foods 

 C. not taste outdated canned food 

 D. heat cold food before eating 

28. If a can is puffy, it is suggested in the passage to ___________. 

 A. open it and taste a little to check it 

 B. throw it away to avoid poisoning other foods 

 C. heat it so as to kill the bacteria 

 D. return it to its seller for repayment 

29. What does "it" in the last paragraph refer to? 

 A. Life. 

 B. Joy. 

 C. Eating. 

 D. Food. 

30. On the whole, the passage strongly suggests that _________. 

 A. natural food is healthier than artificial food 

 B. food helps keep one healthy 

 C. canned food may be poisoning 

 D. one's poor health is generally a result of food poisoning 

第四部分 概括大意 (20分) 

给下面一篇文章的每一段概括大意。每一段的主题用一个或几个单词表示,空出的词已给出了第一个字母,请把其余字母补全。 

31. D  

Adults twelve years old and over take two teaspoonfuls as needed, not to exceed fifteen teaspoonfuls per day. Children six years old to twelve years old take half of the adult dosage, not to exceed seven teaspoonfuls per day. 

32. W  

Do not administer (用药) to children under six years old or to individuals with high blood pressure, heart disease, or disease, or diabetes. This preparation may cause sleepy. Do not drive or operate machinery while taking this medicine. Chronic (长期 ) cough is dangerous. If relief does not occur within three days, discontinue use and consult your physician. 

33. E of Information between the Sensory (感观 ) Neurons (神经) and the Brain.  

The sensory neurons keep the brain informed of what is happening outside and inside the body through a variety of sensory pick - up units called receptors. Some of these, lying at or near the skin surface, may be specially sensitive to tissue damage (causing pain), or light contact (producing a touch sensation), or pressure, or temperature, either hot or cold. Other receptors on the tongue and in the nose respond to light of varying intensities, while receptors respond to color. Receptors in the ear respond to minute vibrations caused by sound waves striking the eardrum. Other receptors are deep in the walls of the intestines; when the intestines contract vigorously because of the presence of uncomfortable food or gas, these receptors transmit signals of pain. Still other receptors lodged in the muscles, fire off signals to the brain any time a muscle contracts or a joint moves or is subjected to added pressure or tension. 

34. C of a fever; Fever is a condition in which the body temperature is high than normal. Usually the presence of fever is due to an infection, though there can be many other causes such as malignancies (恶性肿瘤),brain injuries, poisoning reactions, reactions to vaccines, and diseases involving the central nervous system. Sometimes emotional action can bring on a fever. 

35. C of the Stomach; Carcinoma of the stomach is a common cancer of the digestive tract. It is one of the leading causes of death. 

The disease tends to occur in the age groups over 40, and to this type of cancer males are somewhat more likely than females. In many cases the early stage of growth of the cancer is usually not associated with definite symptoms. By the time symptoms occur to an intensity that makes the patient seek medical advice, the cancer is often found to have spread to other organs such as the liver. 

第五部分 阅读理解 (120分) 

Passage 1 

What can you do if you suffer from insomnia? Two things: you can eat certain foods that will help you fall asleep and stay asleep, and you can do certain things that are sleep-inducing. Here are some guidelines Dr. Schwartz has worked out after years of research. 

a. If you've had a bad night's sleep, don't stay in bed later the next morning. 

b. Don't go to bed earlier the next night. Stick to your usual bedtime and rising pattern. 

c. Don't nap during the day. Naps cut down on night sleep-time. 

d. Never lie awake in bed and sleeplessness, thus reinforcing your poor sleeping pattern. 

e. When you get out of bed after an hour of sleeplessness, do something, but make sure it's something dull. Read a book that doesn't interest your much. Never watch TV or listen to the radio. 

f. Try sitting still in a chair in a darkened room; you'll be surprised how fast you'll get sleepy. 

g. When you retire for the night, don't lie there rehashing (重讲) the mistakes of the day. Nor is this the time to plan your next day's activities - you may become too anxious or over-stimulated. 

h. Get as much exercise as possible, preferably early in the day. Exercise is a great sleep inducer. 

i. Develop a bedtime routine: closing up the house and turning out the lights in a certain way, bathing, plumping (使鼓起) up the pillows. Sleep studies show that doing things in sequence - in a way that tends to calm and sooth - can help you achieve a good sleep pattern. 

As for food intake to help you sleep, make sure that your daily diet is a balanced one and high in tryptophan (色氯酸), an amino (氨基 ) acid found in certain foods. The body converts tryptophan to L- tryptophan and then to serotomin, a body chemical crucial to the sleep process. Foods rich in tryptophan are: whole or skim milk, eggs, cheese, meat, and peanuts, apples, bananas, cherries, dried prunes (梅脯), and watermelon. If you include foods high in tryptophan in your daily diet, and incorporate some of the sleep-inducing activities into your life, the chances are good that you will achieve a pattern of restful, soothing sleep. 

36. Look over the list of guidelines in paragraph 1. Which of the following would Dr. Schwartz probably approve of doing if you can't sleep? 

 A. Read an exciting novel. 

 B. Go to bed at your usual bedtime. 

 C. Think about a meeting you have to attend tomorrow. 

 D. Take a nap at lunchtime. 

37. In paragraph 1, item, Dr. Schwartz implies, but not directly say that ________. 

 A. you should read a book that doesn't interest you much 

 B. watching TV or reading an interesting book will stimulate you and keep you awake 

 C. listening to the radio will wake up other people in your house 

 D. you should count numbers silently 

38. The third sentence in paragraph 2 is a list of foods, paragraph 2 _______. 

 A. does not explain why these foods are listed here 

 B. says to avoid the food listed 

 C. highly recommends that you eat the foods listed 

 D. says that the foods listed are very cheap 

39. The last sentence of paragraph 2 ___________. 

 A. is pessimistic about insomnia 

 B. is optimistic about insomnia 

 C. contains examples of food high in trpytophan 

 D. summarizes the entire article 

40. The article mainly tells us ___________. 

 A. why go to sleep 

 B. causes of insomnia 

 C. ways to deal with insomnia 

 D. what foods can help you sleep 

Passage 2 

Flu(which is short for influenza) is a highly contagious disease, the cause of which is a very tiny organism known as a virus. Several types of flu are recognized, depending on the type of virus that causes the disease. 

When people catch flu, they often complain of a headache or a sore throat. They usually have a fever and their temperature rises from the normal 37C (98.6F) to about 39.5C (103F). Sometimes a person has a dry hacking (猛烈地干咳) cough and aching joints. 

Today many doctors prescribe drugs that fight the disease. And scientists have also developed vaccines (疫苗) that help to prevent it. If the patient has proper treatment, and complete rest in bed, the virus is normally beaten within a week to ten days. 

How does flu spread so quickly? When the infected person breathes out, sneezes or coughs, he gives out droplets (飞沫) of moisture in the breath from his mouth or nose. These remain in the air for some time. Flu viruses are present in these droplets. If a person sneezes in a crowed or poorly ventilated place, such as a lift, viruses can easily be carried from an infected person to a healthy person. This is known as droplet infection. The healthy person will breathe in the viruses given out by the infected person. 

Flu can often cause complications in breathing, and general infection of the lung. With elderly and weak people, these added complications often yield serious results. The virus, if not properly treated, can weaken the body so that patient may develop more serious illnesses, such as pneumonia (肺炎) and bronchitis (支气管炎). 

There are three main types of virus that cause flu, which are called type A, B and C. type A is the most powerful of the three, and undergoes minor changes in its genetic material every few years. The new form of the virus is called a strain (菌株). The new strain is not affected by the current vaccines. It is said to be " resistant" to them. So doctors must be continually producing new vaccines to combat the new strains of virus. 

41. The types of flu vary with __________. 

 A. the character of organism 

 B. the portal of entry 

 C. the organ involved 

 D. the pathogenic agents 

42. Today vaccines have been developed and used for _______ purposes. 

 A. curative 

 B. preventive 

 C. therapeutic 

 D. diagnostic 

43. The transmitting medium for flu is __________. 

 A. air 

 B. food 

 C. water 

 D. a mosquito 

44. Flu is more likely to affect ___________. 

 A. the young 

 B. the adults 

 C. the elderly 

 D. the new-born infants 

45. The most dangerous complication of flu is __________. 

 A. bronchitis 

 B. inflammation of the lungs 

 C. emphysema 

 D. sinusitis 

第六部分 完形填空 (30分) 

根据短文在空白处填上适当的单词,该单词的第一个字母已经给出。 

Messages in your body are carried by n_____46____. Each nerve is made up of thousands of nerve cells. Each nerve that carries messages to the arms and legs has a long fiber coming f 47 its cell. One nerve passes a message it r 48 to another nerve across the ends of the fibers. 

Messages are carried from the arms and legs, also. Suppose that you t 49 something hot. Even before you exclaim "Ouch!" your finger pulls b 50 . A nerve in your finger connects w 51 another nerve that transfers the message to a third one. This third never end i 52 the muscles in your finger. The muscles pull back your finger, and prevents a t 53 . It takes only a fraction o 54 a second for the message to travel f 55 one nerve to another.

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